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Water Disinfection with Chlorine and Chloramine

 

Water comes from a variety of sources, such as lakes, rivers, and the ocean. The quality of water, however, can be a little jarring to those visiting our planet. There is only one thing that this level of water contamination can result in — contamination. Luckily, there are ways to ensure your drinking water is safe and clean using chemical disinfectants like chlorine or chloramine and UV radiation. But first let's take a look at what chemical disinfection is all about.

 

chlorination, water softener system, water filtration system

Water disinfection is the process of rendering any biological, bacterial, or viral organism in water harmless. By using chemical disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramine and UV, this goal can be accomplished. There are many methods of water treatment that can achieve this goal. 

There are two main types of water disinfection — chemical and physical — but we will mainly focus on the more common chemical methods. Chemical methods involve adding a chemical substance to make microbes ineffective or even completely destroy them if possible. The types of chemical substances used in today's world are chlorine and chloramine.

Chlorine

Chlorine can be found in chlorine tablets, chlorine gas, and liquid sodium hypochlorite. Chlorine is a chemical agent that releases toxic gases when it comes to water disinfection. It disinfects water by generating free radicals of oxygen. These radicals are lethal to bacteria and other organisms making it a good choice to treat pools, pools of water with high concentration of bacteria, drinking water, and even sewer systems. Chlorine is highly effective against not only disease-causing pathogens but also cysts and parasites.

In addition to treating drinking water with chlorine, chloramines can be used as well. Chloramines can also be used to treat seawater and wastewater treatment. 

Chloramine 

is a chemical that contains equal parts of chlorine and ammonia. Chlorine and ammonia are dissolved in water to convert it into chloramine. It is much more stable than chlorine and will remain active for up to 30 days without the need for any additional chemicals to renew its effectiveness. Chloramine does not evaporate like chlorine, which allows it to be used as a longer-lasting disinfectant than chlorine. Chloramines are commonly used because it is cheap, effective, long lasting, and safe for humans (It is non-toxic). Chloramines are commonly used in drinking water treatment and even in swimming pools to kill germs and prevent the growth of algae. Chloramine residues are usually found in potable waters after 12 to 24 hours poultry, dairy, or fish were exposed to chloramine. Chloramine may be present in well water to a slight extent because of the reactions with chlorine and ammonia.

Chlorine gas is an irritating gas that is commonly found in household bleach, but it can also be used for treatment of drinking water as well. When chlorine gas is sprayed into the air, it reacts with wind currents and sunlight releasing free radicals of oxygen which kills bacteria and other microorganisms like viruses. Chloramine is also used in the same way as chlorine gas. It is released into the air and reacts with oxygen and nitrogen to treat drinking water. Chloramine burns the membranes of algae, fungi, algae, and viruses and prevents their reproduction.

Chlorine evaporates pretty quickly so it may not be as effective in killing germs or preventing algae growth if it isn't constantly being replaced. 

The UV method disinfects water by using ultraviolet radiation for water disinfection. UV radiation releases electrons from chemicals in the water called peroxides destroying any living organisms in the process. These electrons will then neutralize any other chemicals that may cause harm to the consumers of that water. UV frequently used to purify drinking water disinfection.

The UV method has been approved by the EPA, and it is also known to be safe for humans as long as they are not exposed to the radiation directly. UV can be run on a continuous basis, or it can be used as needed.

UV systems usually require a lot of upkeep because they must have the bulbs changed every six months to keep it's effectiveness optimal. The maintenance costs for this system are about $30 per month for upkeep and electricity. This method is best suited for high volume water supply lines and is especially useful in remote areas where maintaining the equipment is difficult and costly if parts need to be shipped in. 

UV radiation and ozone are the most widely used methods of water disinfection.  Ozone is an oxidizing agent that destroys bacteria, viruses, and other living organisms. UV light kills microorganisms by destroying their DNA. Ozone can be harmful if not handled properly as it can produce free oxygen radicals which can damage human tissue if they come in contact with them directly.

UV lights are non-toxic and do not leave any residue in water, so they are safe to use on drinking water to prevent harmful organisms from growing and contaminating the water supply. This process requires no chemicals and is said to be one of the more effective methods of treating highly contaminated waters like swamp or tidal waters.

 

UV light is a very simple, inexpensive method that requires no chemicals to achieve these results. Most UV lights can be purchased for less than $50 and require minimal upkeep as well. The UV process is effective in treating drinking water, swimming pool water, potable water supplies and wastewater treatment systems. It differs from other methods because it is non-toxic to humans and it can be used as a preventive method on lakes or ponds where algae growth becomes an issue. 

Ozone generators are a type of UV light used to destroy microorganisms in drinking and swimming water. They generate ozone or oxygen radicals that completely kill microorganisms in the water. Ozone can also be used as a sanitizer for hard surfaces such as pipes and showers, and can help eliminate the odor of chlorine or chloramines.

Ozone generators are usually more cost effective and safe than UV-based disinfection systems because they do not require batteries or other electrical components.

Aqua Purifiers use ultra-fine water filters to remove viruses, bacteria, cysts, parasites, heavy metals and other pollutants from water without chemicals used by other methods. 

There are several types of ultra-fine filters that can be used to remove all the harmful substances from water. The most common filter used for water treatment is a sand filter. A sediment filter works by using the natural processes of sedimentation and filtration through gravity to remove harmful organisms so they do not reach the main treatment point.

If you are willing to invest in a more sophisticated, yet more expensive system, then you can choose to go with a carbon filtration system. Most of these systems use carbon filters which purify water by filtering out unwanted particles and gases into whatever passes through it and allows it to pass into your drinking or swimming pool. 

Such removed gases include radon and carbon dioxide, while unwanted particulates consist of dust, dirt, rust, lint and asbestos. The downside to these types of filters is that they are more effective with strong contaminants than they are with smaller ones like viruses and inorganic materials. 

UV rays can be just as effective. An ultraviolet water treatment system uses ultraviolet light to destroy harmful microorganisms in the water supply.  Ultraviolet light works by passing through the water before it reaches your drinking or swimming pool, causing damage to bacteria in the water. This method is very effective for municipalities that have a large population because it does not require any chemicals to be added when treating the water supply.

Bailey UV systems were used in the 1940s to disinfect swimming pools and water supplies. The Bailey UV process works by using a UV light to disinfect the water supply in which it is run. It is effective for any water supply sources including pools and spas, but it does require maintenance. The system requires a new bulb every six months and you will have to remove sediment from your pool or spa annually so that it does not get clogged up.

Bailey UV systems are very inexpensive and safe for humans, animals, and plants because they have been tested and approved by the EPA for drinking water treatment of public swimming pools and spas. 

The UV method is well known for it's effectiveness in purifying drinking water. When UV is used to purify water, it does so by using special lamps to expose the water to UV radiation. The UV light has a wavelength that kills disease causing organisms. The purity of the water depends on how powerful of a lamp you can afford and how much energy you want to spend illuminating the water. Significant energy savings can be had when using a more powerful lamp, but at the same time, more electricity costs will be incurred. 

Using UV light in drinking water is a very effective method of disinfection. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation kills pathogens and oxidizes organic compounds by either breaking down the bonds between them or breaking up the molecules into more stable ones. The downside to this method is that it does not do much to prevent the pathogens from being able to grow again. UV light can be used as a topical sanitizer for water bottles, pool surfaces, floors, showers, and other hard surfaces. It can also be used for drinking water treatment systems as well. 

This method is generally less effective than other methods because controlling factors like microorganisms and free radicals cannot effectively be controlled. For example, there is no way to make the water pass through the UV light faster or slower. It is what it is. 

Other methods of water treatment may involve using chemicals to safely and effectively remove harmful microorganisms from your drinking or swimming pool water supply. There are a number of different sanitizers used by water treatment professionals that can help you remove harmful particles so they do not reach your drinking or bathing pool in the first place. When selecting the proper sanitizer for you, it is important to consider how efficient it will be at treating your water supply and whether or not it will react with any other substances that are already in your water supply.

 

Shock treatments are made with several different chemicals that kill microorganisms in the water. Shock treatments can be used as a supplementary treatment to your water treatment system. The goal is to remove any harmful particles by having them collide with one another and force them out of the water supply faster than other methods will allow. 

Quaternary Ammonium Chlorides (QACs) are very effective at killing harmful microorganisms. They also have a low toxicity rate when compared to other sanitizers, but similar effects can be gained through using chlorine-based sanitizers like chlorine or chloramine. 

Chlorine is a very common sanitizer used to purify water. It is inexpensive and can be used in large quantities to remove harmful microorganisms from the water supply. The downside to chlorine is that it can react with unwanted substances in the water and turn them into other, less healthy substances. Chlorine tends to make metals like iron rust and turn other metals into their toxic forms turning them into something that isn’t safe for human consumption. The best way to prevent this from happening is by installing a metal filter before adding any chlorine-based sanitizer. 

Chloramines are a stronger form of chlorine that can be used in much larger quantities to remove harmful microorganisms from the water supply. The downside to using chloramines is that it can react with substances in your water supply and become carcinogenic. Before deciding on using chloramine, make sure only the necessary amount is added because any leftover could react with other unwanted substances and become dangerous for human consumption. 

Ozone gas is highly effective at treating water because it will oxidize even the smallest microorganisms and viruses in just a few seconds, making it one of the most effective methods of water treatment on this list. You will need to add ozone gas to your water supply whenever you take a bath or shower. The best way to use this method is to start up the ozone generator and let it run for 30 minutes or until the water starts to become cloudy. You will then just turn it off and drain the pool or tub so it can be flushed out before using again. Ozone gas is also very strong and can be harmful for humans if inhaled, so make sure that you are careful when you are around the pool with your ozone generator on. 

Hydrogen Peroxide (H202) is another very effective sanitizer that can be used in large quantities with no ill effects. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with unwanted particles in the water supply to remove them before they can cause any harm. The only downside to using hydrogen peroxide is that it cannot be used in large quantities and still be considered safe for human consumption. This means that you will have to use much smaller quantities in order for it to be effective. 

Near-infrared (NIR) light is a relatively new method of water treatment that has no side effects, requires little maintenance, and is very effective at removing harmful particles from the water supply. By exposing your drinking water or swimming pool water supply to NIR light you can remove 95% of harmful microorganisms in just 10 minutes. The only downside is that your light will not work for 2 to 3 weeks after installation. The good news is that it comes with a 30-year guarantee. 

Ultrasonic sound waves are created through vibrating a water-filled chamber with high intensity electrical energy. As the water moves through the chamber, it causes vibrations of the surrounding walls and equipment that are able to remove harmful particles from your water supply. Ultrasonic sound waves can be used as a supplement or supplementary treatment to help your chlorine, chloramines, ozone, shock treatments, or any other sanitizer work more effectively in removing harmful microorganisms from your water supply. 

A UV light is created through passing a high voltage electrical charge through a gas. This gas is then placed in a glass or plastic bulb and blasted with ultraviolet radiation from the light itself, creating the UV light that can be used to treat your water supply with. This method is one of the more expensive methods of water treatment because of the large equipment necessary to create this UV light. It is also one of the most effective ways to remove harmful microorganisms from your water supply because it will kill them on contact. As long as you make sure that they do not get out before they are killed, this method can be very efficient at keeping your water supply safe for drinking or bathing in. 

Water Filtration 

If you are looking to keep harmful microorganisms out of your water supply but do not want to use any chemical treatments, then a water filter would be the best choice. Filters are one of the most effective methods because they will replace all of the chemicals that you add into your water supply with a healthy alternative. They will also prevent unwanted particles from interfering with your sanitizing methods or adding unwanted substances like metals and sediment into your water supply. The best part is that filters are cheap, easy to install, and provide long-lasting results without having to sit and wait for the filters to regenerate for several months at a time.

 

The best kind of water filter to use is one that is designed to remove harmful particles from your pool or water supply. In this way you will have no need to purchase the chemical treatments that other methods might require. There are three main types of filters, each with their own unique set of advantages. 

The first kind of water filter on the market today are reverse osmosis (RO) filtration systems. Basically these systems use a membrane that will allow only very small quantities of solutes and/or contaminants from your water supply to get through, as well as anything that may be in there already. This will allow your water to pass through the membrane and be filtered down to remove all of it’s unwanted particles. One of the key differences between this type of system and the others is that RO systems are hugely expensive, usually costing in excess of $300 per unit. This is because there is a lot of equipment involved with these types of filters, including a large array of different size membranes and pumps needed to run them. 

The second type of water filter that you will see advertised are “reverse osmosis” filters. This kind of system is actually a combination of a RO system and an activated carbon filter, both of which are designed to remove harmful particles from your water supply. Essentially this system relies on the rate at which your RO membranes can remove solutes like chlorine, chloramines, and metals from the water supply. The same amount of electricity is used as with the RO filters in order to activate the carbon, so you won’t use any more electricity than with an RO filter running on its own. This allows for a very effective combination that will remove over 99% of all harmful particles from your water supply and sediment from the tiny microorganisms that you cannot see with the naked eye. 

The third type of filter you will see on the market is an “ion exchange” filter. This type of system uses a special resin that uses positively charged ions from the water supply to attract negative ions from the air. These negatively charged ions are then placed in a small chamber where they can be converted into positively charged ions by using electricity. The undesirable particles that you cannot see with the naked eye will then cling to these positively charged ions, and be trapped in this chamber until they are able to be removed through regular flushing or other filtration methods. This method is usually the most expensive because of the cost of the resin and because it usually requires more space to operate. 

Conclusion 

As you can see, there are several different methods that you can use to treat your water supply. A chlorine treatment will help your water get rid of harmful microorganisms that are present in just one or two days, while a UV light will kill anything it comes into contact with on almost instantaneously. An ozone generator is great because it uses no electricity and requires almost no maintenance. Water filtration systems take out all of the sediments and unwanted particles from your water supply without having to add any chemicals but give you this benefit slowly over time as they work through them slowly. The method that you decide on will depend on the amount of money that you want to put into your water treatment or the type of aquatic environment in which you plan to use it.

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